Are you so sure the flying bug you just saw isn’t a termite that you’re willing to bet thousands of dollars on termite damage repair? There are four bugs that look like termites or cause damage that looks like the work of termites. Maybe that flying insect you saw is one of them. Here are four bugs that look like termites and how to identify them.
Our guide includes photos and comparison tables to help you.
In this article:
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How to Identify Termites
Before looking for bugs that aren’t termites, you should first know what termites look like. The three main types of termites include:
- Dampwood termites
- Drywood termites
- Subterranean termites
Termites have a broad waist. This broad waist makes termites look like they only have a two-segmented body, even though they have three. They also have straight antennae, whereas many insects have bent antennae.
A termite’s wings are almost twice as long as its body, and all four wings are the same size. Usually, termites appear brown or black, but some species of termites can look white or reddish.
The most common sign you’ll find of termites is wood damage. The damage varies depending on the termite. You might also find piles of dry feces known as fecal pellets. These piles may be a sign of infestation.
Causes of Infestation
Poor drainage and moist wood can attract termites. Termite infestations can be because of plumbing leaks and excessive condensation issues.
Most homeowners don’t realize they have termites until they swarm. Most of the structural damage to wood has already occurred at this point, and the price of getting rid of the infestation and repairing the damage is high.
Pro Tip: As you consider these termite look-alikes, keep in mind, it’s not always their appearance that has us confusing these four bugs with termites. The signs of damage from these pests are often mistaken for the wood holes, pellets, and frass that signal a termite infestation.
Here are four bugs that look like termites (with pictures).
1. Carpenter Ants
Flying ants are easy to mistake for termites, particularly carpenter ants. Both are similar in size and shape. Both also tend to gather in large groups as ant and termite swarmers gather to find mates.
Keep in mind: While black carpenter ants exist throughout the eastern U.S., termites live in every state except Alaska.
Body: Carpenter ants have a narrow waist and three distinct segments. An easy comparison for this body type is a wasp. Flying termites have two sets of front wings that are an equal length.
Color: Winged termites and carpenter ants are similar in color, both appearing as black, brown, or reddish.
Antennae: Both termites and carpenter ants have antennae. Yet a carpenter ant’s antennae are elbowed in the middle, while a termite has straight antennae.
Wings: Both have two sets of wings, but a carpenter ant’s wings are approximately equal to the length of its body, and the front and back wings are different lengths.
|Characteristics of Carpenter Ants||Characteristics of Termites|
|Leave cone-like piles of frass behind||Dry fecal pellet piles around infestations|
|Black, light brown, and reddish||Black, brown, white, and reddish|
|Elbowed antennae||Straight antennae|
|Two sets of wings equal to body length||Two sets of wings twice as long as body|
|Front and back wings are different lengths||All four wings are the same size|
|Narrow waist with three distinct segments||Broad waist with two visible segments|
Termites and carpenter ants both damage your wooden structures, but signs of each can differ. Carpenter ants typically create cone-like piles of shredded wood debris (frass) outside their nest. The ants then push the frass out of their tunnels as they excavate.
Drywood termites use “kick holes” or “kick-out” holes to dispose of their dry fecal pellets. These fecal pellets tend to accumulate outside of an infested area and are among the first signs of a drywood termite infestation. Visible kick-out holes are also a sign of costly termite damage.
The carpenter ant’s tunnel gallery has smooth, clean inner surfaces that usually appear as if they are sanded. Termite galleries usually contain soil or fecal matter.
Mud tubes are another sign of a termite infestation. Unlike carpenter ants, subterranean termites build mud tubes that act as passageways between the soil they live in and the wood they eat.
Causes of Infestation
Carpenter ants typically enter the home through small cracks or crevices near a window, door, siding, or flooring. They begin their nest by burrowing into moist, damaged wood. Areas with insulation are another place you might find ant infestations.
Carpenter ants can cause severe damage to your wooden structures and establish large colonies. Carpenter ants also have powerful jaws that can give a painful bite when threatened. They may even spray a defensive chemical of formic acid into the wound, increasing the pain.
A swarm of winged carpenter ants inside your home may indicate a 3- to 4-year-old infestation. By the time you notice it, it’s likely the swarm has already caused considerable damage.
2. Carpenter Bees
Carpenter bees, unlike termites, are independent insects. Each female carpenter bee has her own private nest inside her wood tunnel. More than one carpenter bee can occupy the same piece of wood, but they still live independently.
Carpenter bees create funneling holes, usually half an inch in diameter. Not only do these bugs look like termites, but their nest is also often mistaken for a drywood termite “kick-out“ hole. Look closer, though. Termite kick-out holes are typically 1 mm, making them much smaller than a carpenter bee’s funneling hole.
Below the carpenter bee’s funneling hole, you’ll see piles of yellow sawdust material. As the female carpenter bee prepares her nest, she pushes this chewed wood out of the tunnel. She also produces sticky yellow waste that gathers outside the tunnel’s entrance. This waste may appear as a dark yellow stain on your wooden structure.
Carpenter bees live across the southern United States from Arizona to Florida and in the eastern U.S., north to New York.
|Characteristics of Carpenter Bees||Characteristics of Termites|
|Produce sticky yellow waste outside of tunnel entrance||Leave fecal pellets at entrances|
|Funneling holes half an inch in diameter||Kick-out holes around 1mm|
|Independent insects with private tunnels||Live in swarms together|
|Black with yellow around the front of back||Typically black, brown, white, or reddish|
|Round bodies around one inch long||Long bodies usually less than an inch|
Causes of Infestation
Carpenter bees find your unpainted, weathered wood an especially attractive place to build their nests. They prefer softwoods such as redwood, cypress, cedar, oak, and pine.
A single carpenter bee won’t significantly damage your woodwork, but if carpenter bees continue to nest in your wood and reuse previous nests, they’ll weaken the wood or cause a cosmetic issue.
Carpenter bees’ blaring, reverberating buzz can frighten many people, but it’s no cause for alarm. It’s often the male carpenter bee swirling and diving around you that creates that echoing hum.
Male carpenter bees don’t have stingers, so their buzz is worse than their bite. Female carpenter bees have stingers, but they don’t attack humans unless they feel threatened.
3. Powderpost Beetles
“Powderpost beetles” is a name used to describe several small wood-boring beetle species. The most common type of powderpost beetles? The Anobiid, also known as furniture beetles. These beetle infestations are most common in the southeastern and coastal states, where humidity and temperatures are high.
Powderpost beetles, like termites, create tiny holes in wooden parts of your home or that woodpile by your shed. While drywood termites use these holes to push out their fecal pellets, powderpost beetles chew out these holes to exit the nest after it’s built. Powderpost beetle exit holes are typically 1/32- to 1/8-inch in diameter.
These pesky beetles reduce wood to a flour-like powder. This powder may stream from the exit holes or collect on the ground beneath the wood.
An infested wooden structure typically will have many of these powdery exit holes, giving the wood a shot-hole appearance. If you investigate further by cutting the infested wood, you’ll find fine powder inside.
When moisture in wood is high, particularly in spring and summer, you may hear clicking sounds made by large larvae inside infested wood. The University of Maryland Extension recommends using a stethoscope to diagnose a powderpost beetle infestation.
|Characteristics of Powderpost Beetles||Characteristics of Termites|
|Chew out holes to exit the nest||Leaves residue piles behind|
|Exit holes are 1/32- to ⅛-inch in diameter||Holes are typically 1 mm|
|Produce flower-like powder||Leaves fecal pellets|
|Large larva produces clicking sound||Makes rustling or buzzing sounds|
|Prefer damp or unfinished wood||Will infest any unfinished or finished wood|
Causes of Infestation
Powderpost beetles seek out damp wood. They usually infest basements, barns, seasoned firewood, and lumber stored outdoors.
You also may find these beetles infesting flooring, trim, furniture, and picture frames. Entomologists at Cornell University suspect these beetles spread when wood or furniture containing eggs or larvae are brought into the home.
Powderpost beetles do nearly as much damage as termites. They often attack sub-flooring, hardwood flooring, joists, sills, plates, and interior trim.
Yes, breathe a sigh of relief you’re not dealing with termites, but it’s crucial you get rid of your powderpost beetle problem to protect the structure of your home.
4. Acrobat Ants
Acrobat ants get their name by carrying their abdomen’s hind portion above the rest of their body. When disturbed, they may raise the hind further over the thorax and resemble tiny spiders. These ants range from yellow to dark brown and have a heart-shaped abdomen that’s usually darker than the rest of the body.
Acrobat ants are most commonly found nesting outdoors in trees or decaying wood piles. They are not as common indoors but can be found in areas previously inhabited by another pest, such as an old termite home. Because of this, they don’t do much damage to your home.
They prefer to nest in wooden structures but can live in areas with foam insulation. Acrobat ants push frass out of their tunnels, which many homeowners can mistake as a sign of termites.
These ants roam throughout the southeastern United States.
Pro tip: Because acrobat ants will take over an old nest, you may see signs of termite damage where the ants are nesting.
|Characteristics of Acrobat Ants||Characteristics of Termites|
|Inhabit old nests left by other pests||They make their own new nests|
|Live in both wood and foam installations||Only live in wood|
|Colors range from yellow to dark brown||Black, brown, white, or reddish|
|Large heads with heart-shaped middles||One size, and straight mid-sections|
|Elbowed antennae||Straight antennae|
|Can cause electrical damage||Causes wood damage|
Causes of Infestation
Acrobat ants make their way into the home by traveling on tree limbs to enter through small cracks or holes around windows and doors. They also travel along utility lines to access the structural openings that wires and pipes enter. Acrobat ants will then establish their nests in wood with high moisture.
These bugs look like termites, but acrobat ants bite, sting, or emit an unpleasant odor when threatened. They don’t cause as much wood damage as carpenter ants or termites, but they can short circuit your electrical system.
When to Call a Professional
Call a local pest control professional if you see damaged wood and stray ants, beetles, or termites. An exterminator will offer a termite inspection to identify the pest, determine the extent of the damage, and provide proper treatment and management options.
It will cost you more to get rid of termites than the look-alikes. The damage may also be more extensive. If your house is infested by one of the four bugs often confused with termites, solving your pest problem will likely cost you much less.
Don’t gamble with your home’s wood. Termite damage is expensive to repair. Proper identification will help you get the termites, carpenter ants, carpenter bees, powderpost beetles, and acrobat ants out of your home faster and save your home from further damage.
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Main image: Pacific dampwood termite / Judy Gallagher / CC BY 2.0
LawnStarter writer Abigail Evans updated this article.